Herbicide Applications During Dry, Hot Months

Invasive brush can decrease forage productivity for livestock or decrease brush diversity, valuable for wildlife habitat.  Most ranchers find themselves constantly considering options for brush management, weighing not only the cost and effectiveness, but also when they can find the time to complete the treatments.   As temperatures continue to climb across the state and the chances of rainfall seem to be weakening, it’s important to consider the effect this will have on any herbicide applications.

Treating weeds or brush with a leaf spray application when temperatures are as high, as they have been lately, will usually result in poor control for several reasons.  Plants likely have slowed down their growth and will not move the herbicide down to the roots to control the plant as readily during this time.  Additionally, insect damage during this time of year also decreases the amount of leaf available to take in the herbicide.  Finally, hot temperatures make leaves waxier; a trait used by plants to retain moisture, but will decrease the herbicides’ ability to get into the leaf.  The next leaf spray season will be this fall (October) when it is recommended to treat plants such as huisache, Macartney rose, and Chinese tallowtree.

If you find yourself willing to brave the heat, what herbicide applications could you do during these hot months?  Stem spray applications and cut-stump treatments may be done most any time during the year.  Stem sprays involve spraying each stem of a brush plant, all the way around, about 12-18” high.  This treatment is best on trees with three or less stems because more stems increases the opportunity to miss one of those buds underneath the ground and allow the plant to regrow!  The mix for the stem spray method is simple: 25% triclopyr (such as Remedy Ultra) and 75% diesel.  This should be applied in a straight stream directed right onto the stem.  Plants must be left alone for one full year before removing the ‘skeleton’ or burning the pasture.

An alternative treatment is the cut-stump method.  While this method requires more labor upfront, it is essentially 100% effective if done correctly!  The tree should be removed as low and flat as possible without any dirt or saw dust left on the remaining cut surface.  This could be done with a shear, chainsaw, loppers, or a brush cutter (weedeater with a brush cutter attachment).  A mixture of 15% triclopyr (such as Remedy Ultra) and 85% diesel will be applied onto the entire cut surface and any remaining stem.  This treatment can be done any time of year, so keep in mind that December may provide more favorable weather for those doing the cutting!

When spraying with high temperatures, time your applications for early in the morning when temperatures are not as high. Never spray when temperatures exceed 90 degrees.  Some herbicides (such as Remedy Ultra) are especially susceptible to volatilization, so care should be taken to protect desirable plants from accidental movement of the herbicide.  Be sure to drink lots of water and take frequent breaks.  No huisache tree is worth risking your health!

For more information contact Chelsea Droward at the Bosque County Extension Office, 254-435-2331 or Chelsea.dorward@ag.tamu.edu.

Three-Night “Aggie Beef 706” Goes Virtual

For the first time since its creation in 1993, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service’s Aggie Beef 706 program will be held virtually. Ranchers, educators and allied business people are invited to learn the same valuable concepts traditionally taught in Beef 706.

Participants will attend three successive night sessions on Aug. 11-13 from 6:30-8:45 pm. The event is free, but does require advance registration, regardless of how many sessions attended.

“This Virtual Aggie Beef 706 will teach producers about the food side of their industry,” said Dan Hale, Ph.D., AgriLife Extension associate director and meat specialist, College Station.

“Cattlemen do a great job of raising cattle. But a lot of times they sell those animals, and they don’t have any idea what happens to them after they leave the ranch or leave the feed yard,” Hale said. “This gives them a better idea of where value continues to go as the animal moves through the beef value chain from market-finish steer to boxed beef.”

Presenters for the three days include Hale and Jason Cleere, Davey Griffin, Ron Gill and Joe Paschal, all Ph.D.s and AgriLife Extension specialists with Texas A&M University’s Department of Animal Science. Rick Machen, Ph.D., with the King Ranch Institute, which is part of Texas A&M at Kingsville, will also participate.

Topics of discussion

  • On Aug. 11, participants will learn about how cattle grow and develop in the feed yard, how to evaluate the carcass quality and cutout from live animal characteristics, and about beef carcass quality and yield grading.
  • For the second session on Aug. 12, participants will learn what happens as the beef carcass is merchandised into the different meat cuts, how much bone and fat are in a carcass, and how much of a carcass is made up of the high-priced meat cuts such as tenderloin and ribeye.
  • To close out the course on Aug. 13, participants will hear production experts give helpful pointers on maximizing the value of cattle through genetics and beef management practices.
  • During the program participants will follow a set of market cattle of differing types from steer to steak, Hale said.

“Thanks to the incredible generosity of the Texas Beef Council, there will be no charge for this year’s program,” he said.

It’s Big – but it’s Not a Murder Hornet

We’ve had a few calls and samples brought into the Bosque County Extension Office over the past few weeks so I thought this article was fitting. Since the release of information about Asian giant hornets, Texas A&M AgriLife entomologists are being inundated with cicada killers and other lookalike insects submitted for identification as a possible “murder hornet,” which thus far has only been found in Washington state in the U.S.

While the agency wants to continue to encourage Texans to be vigilant in watching for the Asian giant hornet, they also want to help provide guidance that will help narrow the focus.

David Ragsdale, Ph.D., chief scientific officer and associate director of Texas A&M AgriLife Research, and professor in the Department of Entomology, said many photos of Texas native cicada killers, or ground hornets, are being submitted as suspected Asian giant hornets. He said their website receives five to 10 photos a day, and agency pest management agents and specialists around the state have also been handling inquiries.

It’s a bird, it’s a plane … it’s a cicada killer

In May, the concern about Asian giant hornet was enough to prompt Gov. Greg Abbott to request a task force be mobilized to prepare Texas against the Asian giant hornet’s arrival.

But June is the normal month for the cicada killer wasp, a common large wasp in Texas, to start showing up and this prompted posts on Facebook and in news feeds mistakenly reporting cicada killer wasps as sightings of the Asian giant hornet.

A cicada killer wasp and burrow. These are being confused for Asian giant hornets. (Texas A&M AgriLife photo by Dr. Pat Porter)

“Most everyone has seen the cicada killer wasp that is very large, but has mostly been ignored in the past,” Ragsdale said. “With the most recent news of the Asian giant hornet, they are now paying attention to the native Texas insect.”

While some people thought they had been seeing the newly pictured murder hornets for years, AgriLife Extension experts want to clarify, “No, you haven’t.” Now they are providing outlets to help tell the difference between the Asian giant hornet and similar looking pests.

Holly Davis, Ph.D., Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service entomologist in Weslaco, and Pat Porter, Ph.D., AgriLife Extension entomologist in Lubbock, recently developed a short video explaining the differences between the “murder hornet” and several common lookalikes here in Texas.

“To date, we have identified hundreds of insects that people in Texas suspect might be Asian giant hornets (murder hornets),” Porter said. “Eighty percent of these have been either the eastern cicada killer or western cicada killer. It is understandable how non-entomologists would have trouble deciding which was which.”

How to tell the difference? “First, the Asian giant hornet is native to Japan and South Korea, and it has only been found in parts of British Columbia, Canada and the northwestern corner of Washington state,” Davis said. “There have been no confirmed reports of these hornets in other U.S. locations, including Texas.”

There are a number of Texas native species of wasp, hornet, yellow jacket and bees, but what really separates Asian giant hornet and a few of our native species is their size. The ones most likely to be confused with Asian giant hornet are three species of cicada killers and the pigeon horntail.

The Asian giant hornet is the world’s largest known hornet measuring 1.5-2 inches in length. It has a head as wide as its shoulders, where the wings and legs are located, or wider, and it is a bright orange or yellow. The thorax, or shoulder portion where the wings and legs are connected, is a dark brown, as are the antenna. It has a much smaller or pinched waist and then smooth looking brown and orange stripes cover the abdomen.

The cicada killers, of which there are three different species here in Texas, are also quite large, measuring 1-1.5 inches in length. But they will all typically have a head that is narrower than the thorax. The head and the thorax are typically the same color, a darker orange or brown color. It does also have a pinched waist. But the stripes on the abdomen will be jagged and sometimes look like mountains.

The eastern cicada killer tends to be black and yellow. The western cicada killer is closer in color to the Asian giant hornet, being reddish brown and yellow. But there is no contrasting color between the head and thorax and the stripes are jagged on the western cicada killer.

The other group of insects that are most commonly confused with the Asian giant hornet are the horntail or wood wasps. They are large, have a distinct head that is as wide or wider than the thorax, and may share the same coloration as the Asian giant hornet. However, there is one trait that is easy to spot that is different, and that is the waist. Horntails lack any appearance of a waist.

So, are they harmful or just alarming? The Asian giant hornet preys on bees and can decimate local honey bee populations, essential for most fruit and vegetable crop production. The Asian giant hornets also are fiercely protective of their nests and will deploy painful stings that can cause fatal allergic reactions in people already sensitive to bee stings.

The cicada killer and wood wasps, however, are solitary and thus do not aggressively protect their nesting sites by attacking in large numbers, Davis said. Cicada killers, however, may cause alarm due to the males’ territorial behavior, dive-bombing or buzzing people and animals that walk into their territory.

“Although cicada killers are solitary, you can often find numerous individuals in areas with sandy soils where females dig nests in the ground,” she said. “These nests appear as dime to quarter sized holes.  As females come and go, provisioning their nest with cicadas they paralyze with a sting and carry back to their nests.

“The males are more interested in mating. Thus, they may try to chase off intruders they perceive as a threat to their mating opportunities. However, male wasps are not capable of stinging, thus they are not dangerous, just a nuisance for a few weeks out of the year during the nesting season. Females can sting but are not aggressive and reports of stings are rare.”

Horntails and wood wasps may have what appear to be very long stingers, but they are unable to sting.  They lack venom glands and instead they use this structure, called an ovipositor, to insert eggs into plant tissue, hence the name wood wasp, Davis said.

Fruit Fly Frenzy

Fruit flies can be a pesky pest, especially indoors. While they can be annoying, Mike Merchant, Ph.D., Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service urban entomologist, Dallas, said infestations of fruit flies and other flying pests are relatively easy to control.

“Fruit flies are almost impossible to keep out of homes,” Merchant said. “They can fly in doors when we come and go, hitch rides home on ripe fruit, and are even small enough to enter through window screens. They are very good at smelling out food nearly anywhere in the house.”

Removing the breeding site is the best way to get rid of fruit flies, Merchant said.

“We all have an instinct to grab the Raid or a bug bomb, but we’re not going to get rid of them until we get rid of their breeding sites,” he said.

Fruit flies just need a little moisture in their food to breed, Merchant said.

Larvae feed on decaying plant material, including fruits like strawberries and bananas, and vegetables like onions and potatoes, he said. They also are attracted to wine and beer, vinegar and other sugary beverages.

“They are a major pest for bars and restaurants where they breed in any drink spillage,” he said. “In homes, they are more likely to breed in overripe fruit, rotting onions or spoiled potatoes. Knowing where to look is key.”

The top spots Merchant recommends checking if no “obvious” breeding spot is located are pantries and the trash can.

“It’s good to check the pantry for those forgotten bags of potatoes,” he said. “Another top spot a lot of people don’t think about is the bottom of the trash can. Any spilled liquids or syrups in the bottom of a trash receptacle are great breeding sites for fruit flies.”

Merchant said removing potential breeding sites and proper sanitation – cleaning and wiping up any spills on countertops or floors, especially cracks in flooring – will reduce the likelihood of an infestation. Fruit flies have a life cycle of a week or less, so once the breeding sites are removed, flies will disappear relatively quickly.

“They really bother people, but aren’t really hurting anything,” he said. “We get a lot of calls about them year-round. They’re more prevalent in summer but can be a problem for indoor environments at any time.”

Baited traps are a good way to help catch fruit flies while the breeding sites are being located, Merchant said.

Suitable attractants for traps include apple cider vinegar, wine and bananas, he said. Traps can be as simple as a plastic bowl containing an attractant, like apple cider vinegar, and a few drops of soap to drown flies that attempt to land on the solution.

Commercial traps with funnels or small entry ports that make escape difficult are another option, he said.

“Fruit flies and other flying pests like gnats are just one of life’s little annoyances,” he said. “Making sure they don’t have a place to call home inside your home is the best first step to controlling them.” This article was written by Adam Russell, Texas A&M AgriLife Marketing and Communications.

Youth Sports Week

During Youth Sports Week, July 20-24, thousands of youth sports coaches, and parents are showing their support with a focus on P.L.A.Y.S. ~ Physical activity, Living healthy, Access, Youth development, Safety. Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service recommends starting this week off by listening to the needs and wants of the youth participants in order to strengthen the skills and bonds created by youth sports.

Youth sports participation has positive impacts on health, fitness, character development and other traits that contribute to success in school and adulthood.  “Sports are a wonderful way for children to stay healthy, but most importantly, we need children to have activity that they enjoy and in which their bodies, muscles, and brains are used in a variety of ways”, said Erica Reyes, Extension Program Specialist for Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service.

In 2014, The International Olympic Committee (IOC) met to advance a more appropriate and optimal, evidence-informed approach to youth athlete development. The IOC guidelines include:

  1. Consideration of individual and constantly changing rates of growth, maturation and development
  2. Holistic and diverse development of the athlete and person
  3. Individual and flexible frameworks of athlete development
  4. Mitigating injury risk and promoting health through sport
  5. Advocacy for a wider definition of athletic and sport success

 

Reyes states “in looking at these guidelines, think of the total child’s needs.  Each is different with their interests, physical development, ability, and maturation.  Also important is making sure they follow healthy eating guidelines, keep hydrated, and get enough rest”.

It is important to engage youth athletes in learning the importance of proper nutrition and hydration for maximum athletic performance and for general health and well-being. Proper nutrition is vital for youth athletes because they need extra nutrients to maintain and sustain performance and endurance. As the youth athlete takes in the proper nutrition before and after physical activity, they need to combine it with fluid intake before and during physical activity. The youth athlete may become dehydrated with the loss of water through sweating and breathing if the appropriate amount of fluids is not consumed. Without the proper amount of fluids, the body will not work to its full potential.

Key messages for proper nutrition include; make half your plate fruits and vegetables, switch to fat-free or low-fat milk, make at least half your grains whole grains, compare foods for choices lower in sodium, and drink water instead of sugary drinks.

Remember proper hydration before, during, and after practice or games.  Make sure you watch for signs of dehydration which include; thirst, dry mouth, flushed skin, fatigue, headache, dizziness/weakness, high body temperature, and an increased breathing rate.

Lastly, in celebrating youth sports week this July, and youth sports in general, there should be a combination of healthy competitiveness, fun, family/team bonding, and safety!

For more information on health, nutrition and physical activity please contact Chris Coon at 254-435-2331 or at chris.coon@ag.tamu.edu. For more information about National Youth Sports Week please visit www.ncys.org.

Diagnostic guidance: Keep cattle hydrated and healthy

It’s hot and getting hotter. Each summer in Texas, farmers and ranchers are on the gambling side of the weather, hoping for an appropriate level of rainfall to water cattle and crops.

Although most of the state is not currently experiencing drought-like conditions, the Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, TVMDL, encourages cattle producers to be vigilant during periods of drought or drought-like conditions.

Water deprivation

The most obvious method of mitigating cattle losses due to water deprivation is to ensure they have access to clean and plentiful water sources.

To remain healthy in hot weather, a 1,000-pound heifer may need to drink about 20 gallons daily. The lack of rain may also lead to far less forage growth. In normal years, green forage may provide some of the daily water requirements for a grazing cow. In drought years, forage becomes much drier and the amount of water available from forage will lessen.

To avoid water deprivation, ensure water is readily available to your cattle daily. Check the pumps that draw water from wells. Make sure troughs and tanks contain water. Ensure nipple waterers in barns are working properly.

Avoid holding cattle in pens that lack water sources for long periods, and do not work cattle in the heat of the day.

Ensure cattle know where to find water. Cattle are creatures of habit. If their preferred tank or trough dries up, animals may ignore other distant watering points in their pasture.

When introducing cattle to new pastures, drive the animals to the troughs or tanks. Make sure weaned calves know where to find water. Watch cattle to ensure they are drinking adequately.

Water/Salt Intoxication

When cattle become excessively dehydrated, sodium levels increase in all tissues, including the brain. If dehydrated cattle find water and drink too much too quickly, the liquid will rush to their brains. As pressure builds in the brains, cattle may develop instability or seizures, or may die from what is known as water/salt intoxication.

Salt intoxication does not mean the animal is getting an excessive load of salt, but rather the sodium concentration is increasing in the body because the animal is deprived of adequate water.

If cattle become dehydrated, they need to drink water immediately – but only in small amounts. If the trough is empty, put a few inches of water in the bottom.

Let all cattle drink at once to create competition for the water. Then repeat several times with 30 minutes between each watering until their thirst is satisfied. Monitor water intake and keep it gradual.

Poor Water Quality

Hot summer days take their toll on ponds and tanks. As water sources dwindle during a drought, water may become concentrated with salt and other inorganic materials.

Unpalatable water may cause cattle to avoid troughs or tanks, leading to deprivation and dehydration.

Test water for high concentrations of sodium, calcium, nitrates, magnesium salts and sulfates. If concentrations are high, new sources of fresh water must be provided.

Warm, stagnant water may also encourage the growth of blue-green algae, some of which are toxic. The algae often concentrate on the downwind side of a pond.

Dead rodents, birds or fish along the downwind side of a pond may indicate the presence of blue-green algae that could harm cattle. However, the first indication of blue-green algae could be one or more dead cattle.

Even during a drought, toxic weeds may thrive along the edges of a water source. Look along the shorelines of tanks and ponds for toxic weeds, such as small-headed sneezeweed or knotweed, and control grazing to avoid toxic weeds.

To learn more about testing options, visit TVMDL or call the College Station laboratory at 888-646-5623 and schedule a consultation with a veterinary diagnostician.

Fire Danger Increasing in North, Central Texas

The Texas A&M Forest Service, local fire officials and fire departments are advising the public to be aware of continuing dry conditions in Bell, McLennan, Coryell and Hill counties that can contribute to rapidly growing fire danger. Since these counties surround us here in Bosque, we also need to be aware.

As Texas moves into the hotter and drier summer months, the fire danger increases. Grasses and surface fuels will dry out even further, making them more receptive to ignition.

The first week of June, state and local fire resources have responded to 75 wildfires that have burned 15,222 acres. This includes multiple new starts in North and Central Texas regions. Many recent wildfires have been attributed to equipment use, welding, debris burning and roadside starts.

Texas A&M Forest Service encourages vigilance and preventative measures against human-caused wildfires.

“During these critical fire weather conditions, it is extremely important to remain mindful of all outdoor activities,” said Karen Stafford, Texas A&M Forest Service program coordinator. “Any activity that can create a spark, can start a wildfire.”

  • Postpone outdoor burning until conditions improve, and always check for burn restrictions.
  • Avoid parking and idling in tall, dry grass. Catalytic converters can get hot enough to ignite the grass under a vehicle.
  • Avoid setting hot chainsaws or other hot, gas-powered equipment in dry grass.
  • When pulling a trailer, attach safety chains securely; loose chains can drag on the pavement and cause sparks, igniting roadside fires.

If a wildfire is spotted, immediately contact local authorities. A quick response can help save lives and property.

For more information on how to prevent wildfires and keep your community safe, please visit the Wildfire Education and Prevention Facebook page, Texas A&M Forest Service Facebook page, and the Texas A&M Forest Service website.

Drive Sober this Independence Day

Drive Sober this Independence Day, and every day:

Buzzed Driving Is Drunk Driving

This upcoming Independence Day, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service’s Watch UR BAC and the U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) want to remind drivers that Buzzed Driving Is Drunk Driving. Unfortunately, summertime festivities can create dangerous road conditions, as some drivers hit the streets after drinking alcoholic beverages.

Make sure to celebrate the birth of America safely. Drivers found under the influence of any substance, and still recklessly choose to get behind the wheel of a vehicle, put everyone on the road in danger, including themselves.

 According to NHTSA’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System, drunk driving accounted for 29 percent (10,511) of motor vehicle traffic crash deaths in 2018. With Fourth of July celebration wrapping up in the evening or late at night, more vehicles will be on the road at night. In 2018 alone, 193 people died in motor vehicle traffic crashes over the July Fourth holiday period (6 p.m., July 3, to 5:59 a.m., July 5). Forty percent (78) of those fatalities occurred in alcohol-impaired-driving crashes. This compares to 2017, when 38 percent of the July Fourth holiday period fatalities occurred in alcohol-impaired-driving crashes.

During the Fourth of July holiday, make sure to plan for a safe weekend of festivities.

If you are drunk or high, or even a little buzzed, we are begging you: Stay off the roads. Drunk driving is deadly. If you plan to be the sober driver, then don’t indulge — your friends, family, and community are relying on you.

This Fourth of July Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service – Bosque County and NHTSA urge drivers to designate a sober driver before heading out for the evening. For people that plan on drinking, plan how to safely get around without driving, too.

Remember these tips for a safe night on the roads:

  • It is never OK to drink and drive. Even if you have had only one alcoholic beverage, designate a sober driver or plan to use public transportation or a ride service to get home safely.
  • If you see a drunk driver on the road, find a safe place to park and call local law enforcement.
  • Do you have a friend who is about to drink and drive? Take the keys away and make arrangements to get your friend home safely.

This Fourth of July commit to driving 100 percent sober — because Buzzed Driving Is Drunk Driving.

For information on free alcohol awareness programs available through the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service, Watch UR BAC program in College Station, visit: watchurbac.tamu.edu , or call: 979-862-1911.

8th Annual Central Texas Stocker Cattle Seminar

The 8th Annual Central Texas Stocker Cattle Seminar will be held Wednesday, June 24th at the West Auction Barn located at 20645 N. I-35 in West, Texas. This multi-county programming effort will be hosted by Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Beef and Forage Committees in Bell, Bosque, Falls, Hill, Limestone and McLennan Counties. Cost for the program is $10.00 per person, payable at registration.

Speakers and topics for the program will be: Chute Side Cattle Manners (live cattle demonstration) by Jared Ranly – DVM, Ranly Veterinary Services; Low Stress Facilities and Cattle Handling, by Ron Gill – TAMU Professor & Extension Livestock Specialist & Associate Department Head for Extension. My Cattle Got Out: Liability, Risk and Concerns, by Melody Stewart & Michael Jarrett – Attorneys for Texas Farm Bureau; Cattle Market Update, by Dr. David Anderson, Professor & Extension Economist; Defining the $Value of Cattle, Live Cattle Demonstration, by Brian Uptmore, Auctioneer & Manager, West Auction Barn

Breakfast will be provided by Lone Star Ag Credit and the workshop will include a BBQ lunch. RSVP is required for the meal by June 22, 2020 by calling (254)435-2331.

Individuals with disabilities who require an auxiliary aid, service or other accommodations are encouraged to contact the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service at (254)757-5180 prior to the event.

 

 

Bosque County Hay Show Scholarships Awarded

The first Bosque County Hay Show was held in Clifton in 1979 and was sponsored by the Bosque County Hay Show Committee, Bosque Soil and Water Conservation District, and the Texas Agriculture Extension Service, Bosque County. This year the event is tentatively planned for October 2020, in Meridian (to be confirmed).

The purpose of the Hay Show has been to provide producers information as to the quality of the hay they are producing. By knowing the quality, producers know if their hay has adequate protein or if they need additional supplements to meet the requirements of their livestock.

The hay from this show is auctioned and proceeds are used to offset expenses in addition to providing scholarships for FFA and 4-H high school seniors in Bosque County. A total of 346 scholarships in the amount of $217,850 have been provided to high school seniors in Bosque County. In 2020, twenty scholarships were awarded to graduating seniors.

We are proud to announce this year’s recipients!  From Cranfills Gap FFA: Torrance Crawford, the Marc Johnson Memorial Hay Show Scholarship; Kameron Wiese, the J. B. Wood Memorial Hay Show Scholarship; Caleb Ince, Vianey Lujan, Kassidy Johnson, Gabriel Martinez, Breanna Ratliff and Bennie Wright the Bosque County Hay Show Scholarship. Clifton FFA: Madison Burk, the C. Pernell and Rosalie Aars Memorial Hay Show Scholarship. Meridian FFA: Madisyn Hicks, the John D. & Murlene Smith Memorial Hay Show Scholarship. 4-H: Dacey Dietiker, the C. Pernell and Rosalie Aars Memorial Hay Show Scholarship; Reese Errington, the Sandra S. Shrank Memorial Hay Show Scholarship; Matthew Murphy, the  Jon F. Henderson Memorial Hay Show Scholarship; Mallory Paruszewski, the  Kenneth Shrank Memorial Hay Show Scholarship; Logan Anderson, the  Wade Lee Memorial Hay Show Scholarship;  Brice Barrett, the Bosque County Hay Show Scholarship. Valley Mills FFA: Weston Klemcke, the Carroll M. Olson Memorial Hay Show Scholarship; Erin Thiele, the Homer and Vera Erickson Memorial Hay Show Scholarship; Kaylee Burt and Makenzee Burton, the Bosque County Hay Show Scholarship.